Wandsworth Council has submitted a new planning application for the disused Putney Hospital site.
The council want to demolish the current buildings and construct a new 420-pupil primary school on the site, which lies on Putney Common, to meet rising birth rates in the borough.
Last year more than 600 residents officially objected to the Putney Hospital development plans, which will be funded by 24 luxury flats.
Opponents to the new primary school plans say Putney already has three primary schools within a one mile radius of the site.
They have also raised concerns about increasing congestion and pollution in an area already beset by problems of this kind.
Putney Hospital closed services to patients in 1998 and has remained vacant ever since.